Information about the author:
Chechek S. Tsybenova
Chechek S. Tsybenova, PhD in Philology, Researcher, Institute of Mongolian Studies, Buddhology and Tibetology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova str. 6, 670047 Ulan-Ude, Russia.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7789-1492
The article is devoted to the issues of functional distribution of Tuvan and Russian languages in the social and communicative system of the Republic of Tyva. Functional relationship of these languages is considered in the language policy context of the Russian Federation. Data of various population censuses and data of a sociolinguistic study conducted by the author with native speakers of the Tuvan language in 2009–2010 are presented. The results of analysis show that functionally powerful Russian language has a significant impact on respondents’ degree of linguistic loyalty and level of linguistic competence. Obtained data indicate increase of bilingual native speakers among Tuvans, increase in their level of linguistic competence in Russian, a change in language attitudes of younger generation of Tuvans. It is said that programs for development and preservation of the Tuvan language are declarative in nature, aimed solely at achieving indicators. It is noted that active language environment contributes to mastery of the Tuvan language in family and at school. Such factors as language policy in the field of education and unbalanced language situation lead to a gradual transformation of linguistic consciousness and language attitudes of Tuvan youth and have a serious impact on development and preservation of the Tuvan language.
Keywords: language situation, language loyalty, language competence, language attitudes, Republic of Tuva, the Tuvan language, Tuvans.