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A.M. Gorky Institute
of World Literature
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

IWL RAS Publishing

A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature
of the Russian Academy of Sciences


Povarskaya 25a, 121069 Moscow, Russia



Types of publications

  • Classification – name: Literary studies
  • Author: Zhao Liu
  • Pages: 327–342
  • Publisher: A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IWL RAS Publ.)
  • Rights – description: Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 (СС BY-ND)
  • Rights – URL: Visit Website
  • Language of the publication: Russian
  • Type of document: Research Article
  • Collection: Modern Language Policy: Theory and Practice
  • DOI:
  • Year of publication: 2022
  • Place of publication: Moscow
  • PDF

  • Zhao, Liu. “Multilingual Landscape as a de facto Language Policy: Language Research in the Field of Cultural Tourism in Shanghai.” Modern Language Policy: Theory and Practice, ex. ed. Maria Ya. Kaplunova, Zhao Ronghui. Moscow, IWL RAS Publ., 2022, pp. 327–342. (In Russ.)

Information about the author:

Zhao Liu, PhD student, Shanghai International Studies University, 1550 Wenxiang Avenue, 201620 Shanghai, China.

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 


Shanghai is one of the most influential metropolitan areas in China, which is gradually becoming a global city. The language landscape in the space of cultural tourism is a typical field of urban language policy that combines Chinese cultural characteristics and internationalization. This paper explores the multilingual landscape in physical and networked public spaces in Shanghai’s cultural tourism sector from a spatial theory perspective using the Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape (ELLA) method. The purpose of this work is to identify common features and differences in the linguistic landscape as a reflection of the actual language policy in various types of public spaces in the city. As a result of the study, the author comes to the following conclusions: firstly, the linguistic landscape of physical space and cyberspace are closely interconnected through QR codes. Secondly, there is a spatial stratification of the linguistic landscape, reflecting the urban features of Shanghai, combining Chinese and international characteristics.

Keywords: cultural tourism, metropolis, public space, language policy, language landscape.


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